Distributed work entails the conduct of organizational tasks in places that extend beyond the confines of traditional offices or workspaces. It can refer to organizational arrangements that permit or require workers to perform work more effectively at any appropriate location—such as their homes or customers' sites—through the application of information and communication technology. An example is financial planners who meet clients during the client's lunchtime at the client's workplace; even though this is an out-of-the-office, meeting, the Internet enables the planner to present financial planning tools and presentations on their mobile computers. Another example is a publishing executives who recommends books and places orders for the latest book offerings to libraries and university professors from the executive's home using e-mail or an online system. If this type of distributed work replaces the worker's commute, it would be considered telecommuting. If not, it would be telework (see §1. Definition).
According to the job characteristic theory, the relationship between characteristics of the job and job satisfaction was moderately strong. Of the five task characteristics, autonomy has a strong relationship with job satisfaction such that greater autonomy leads to greater job satisfaction. Teleworkers may have increased satisfaction due to the flexibility and autonomy their jobs provide. Teleworkers were found to have higher satisfaction than office based workers. It was found that autonomy increased teleworkers' satisfaction by reducing work-family conflicts, especially when workers were allowed to work outside traditional work hours and be more flexible for family purposes. Additionally, autonomy explained an increase in employee engagement when the amount of time spent teleworking increased. Furthermore, a study from FlexJobs that surveyed over 3000 people found that 81 percent of respondents also said they would be more loyal to their employers if they had flexible work options.
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Because the fee is so small but the task takes so little time, the strategy is to do as many of them as possible. However, be sure to read the fine print because many of these companies have a minimum payout, meaning that if you earn $8.55 doing 20 micro jobs, you may have to wait until you’ve earned as much as $50 to actually get your money. Read more about some of the pitfalls of this kind of work.
What It Is: Think Mary Kay (cosmetics), Pampered Chef (kitchenware), or Rodan + Fields (skincare) — over time, you build a base of clients to whom you sell a company's wares. "There are several reasons why I decided to become a consultant," says Rodan + Fields independent consultant Debbie Royer. "I had seen how much of a blessing the business had been to a friend of mine and my sister-in-law. Plus, everything can be done from my phone, and being a mom to a preschooler and an infant I don't have a lot of extra time to be sitting at a computer."
Who can resist the dinging sound of a new email? You, that’s who, especially if you want to stay on task. And forget about signing in to Facebook “just for a minute.” It’s easy to get distracted when you telecommute—unlikely distractions that just don’t exist at work abound at home. At the office, for example, you might visit the company kitchen once in the morning and once in the afternoon for a cup of joe (because that’s what’s appropriate), but at home, you’re hitting the fridge every hour on the hour. Or more.
As of 2012, estimates suggest that over fifty million U.S. workers (about 40% of the working population) could work from home at least part of the time, but in 2008 only 2.5 million employees, excluding the self-employed, considered their home to be their primary place of business. The number of employees reported to have worked from their home "on their primary job" in 2010 has been reported as 9.4 million (6.6% of the workforce), though, this number might include the self-employed. As of 2017, roughly 3.7 million employees—2.8% of the workforce—work from home at least half the time, Global Analytics Workplace reports. Very few companies employ large numbers of home-based full-time staff. The call center industry is one notable exception: several U.S. call centers employ thousands of home-based workers. For many employees, the option to work from home is available as an employee benefit but most participants only do so a fraction of the time. Top paid among work-from-home sectors are home-based physicians and radiologists in which it is suspected that they earn near the $1,975 median weekly income of physicians, as reported by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, making it a six-figure job. Studies show that at-home workers are willing to earn up to 30% less and experience heightened productivity. 
Per Hilton, “In this role, you will engage directly with Hilton guest as a specialist in sales/reservations and customer service. The Guest Engagement Specialist is a work from home role within Hilton’s Reservation sales and customer support team and is perfect for someone with strong communications skills that can easily switch focus from solving problems to selling Hilton.”
A 2007 study of National Science Foundation employees indicated that approximately one-third participated in telework regularly, characterized staff satisfaction with the program, and noted savings in employee time and greenhouse-gas emissions as a result of telework. Rep. Sarbanes (D-MD) introduced the Telework Improvements Act of 2009 in March 2009. Co-sponsors of the bill included Reps. Connolly (D-VA), Wolf (R-VA), and Capito (R-WV). The bill requires each executive agency to establish a policy under which employees may be authorized to telework to the maximum extent possible without diminishing employee performance or agency operations. At the same time in the U.S. Senate, Sen. Akaka (D-HI) introduced the companion bill, along with Sens. Landrieu (D-LA) and Voinovich (R-OH).
Data entry encompasses different job titles, but they all usually include inputting alphabetic, numeric, or symbolic data into a company's system from written or audio files using a keyboard and computer. Most legitimate companies hiring for this type of work hire people as independent contractors and not full-time employees. Data entry jobs are frequently the bait in work-from-home scams, so be sure to examine opportunities carefully. Never pay for kits or software.
You don’t need to know HTML or programming to work part-time testing websites. Website testing services are looking for visitors to relay their experience and suggest improvements. They’re looking for people who are similar to their customers and readers, making this a great job for almost anyone wanting to work from home. Typically, testers record their impressions as they visit and evaluate a website.
Although many medical transcriptionists work for hospitals or physician’s offices, most are able to work at home, and at a time or place of their choosing. Since their tasks involve transcribing recorded medical dictation, a computer, desk, and earpiece are generally the only requirements after completing a postsecondary medical transcriptionist program.
Jobs are available mostly on a full-time basis. Current positions available include sales, advertising, account management, project/program/product management fulfillment and operations management, human resources, business and merchant development, operations, IT and support engineering, facilities, maintenance and real estate, and customer service.
Based in Chicago, Illinois, AbbVie is a biopharmaceutical company that manufactures and markets therapies and pharmaceuticals created to treat illnesses and various medical conditions. The company now has more than 29,000 employees in over 170 countries worldwide. AbbVie develops products designed to fight serious illnesses like cancer, immunological disorders, women’s health issues, and chronic neurological conditions.
Think long and hard before shelling out any money: Some work-at-home jobs will require you to purchase materials or equipment to get started, and while that doesn’t mean they’re not legitimate, it should be a red flag. If you are asked to pay for equipment, make sure you understand what you’re buying, and from whom. Also ask about the return policy for your equipment if your new gig doesn’t work out.
Health care providers are among the most common employers offering jobs from home. So it should be no surprise that United Healthcare is one of the top 10 companies offering work-at-home situations. Though health care typically involves hands-on work at a care facility, it also provides a surprising number of positions that can be handled remotely.
Appen is a technology services company based in Australia. However, they have offices in the US and the United Kingdom as well, and provide opportunities in 130 countries around the world. The company works with some of the biggest companies in the world, including eight of the 10 top technology companies. It supports more than 1 million contractors around the world.
This is another area where large, often tech-focused, companies are consistently looking to hire remote workers. Like with customer service agents, tech support specialists are focused on answering customer questions and solving their problems. However, tech support is more specialized, so it does require a little knowledge about working with the product.
Customer Service & Support Representative – PNC: Must live within 150 miles of Atlanta, GA. “As a Virtual Work at Home – Customer Service & Support Representative, you will provide routine service support to PNC customers who initiate contact with the Virtual Charlotte Customer Care Center. This may involve questions regarding products, online directions, and their accounts. You will communicate directly with customers, as well as internal and external service partners to effectively resolve issues, questions, and service requests. In addition to a competitive base salary, the opportunity to earn up to $850 per month in performance-based incentives, and flexible scheduling options, this position offers consultants the opportunity to work from home on a daily basis. For the purposes of technology support, virtual employees must live within 150 miles of an Atlanta GA, PNC location.”
A work from home job can be any position that does not require you to be in an office. There a wide range of work from home jobs. Some companies offer opportunities for employees in traditional roles to work remotely for all or some of their workweek. These jobs often use technology for meetings, assignments, and collaboration. This practice is called telecommuting. Other work from home opportunities may include jobs such as customer service representatives for which companies will hire remote workers, or part-time virtual assistants to manage work which does not require a physical presence in the office.